The Holy Spirit Brings Restoration in the End-Times Renewal

Discussions of the End-Times often center on Jesus’ return. But what role does the Spirit play in the End-Times? Beginning in the Hebrew Scriptures and continuing through the Second Temple period, the Spirit is depicted as the means by which God accomplishes his historical and eschatological plan.[1] That eschatological plan includes an expansion of the Spirit’s work upon the earth as well as the Spirit’s inner work that transforms the hearts of the covenant people.[2] The Spirit’s renewing work would prepare God’s people to experience His presence.

In his sermon at Pentecost, Peter cites the pouring out of the Spirit as evidence that the “last days” have begun (Acts 2). The New Testament writers believed that they were in the “last days” (end times) and these previous promises were being fulfilled. The Spirit would indwell and empower the church to expand God’s kingdom to the ends of the earth until Jesus’ return. This post will point out some first-century expectations concerning the Spirit in the End-Times.

Pouring out the Spirit: Eschatological Expansion

The Old Testament (OT) often portrays the Spirit of God as working in leaders and prophets to establish, deliver, judge, guide, and restore the people of God.[3] Not surprisingly then, the Spirit is also depicted as active among God’s people in the eschatological restoration.[4] The eschatological work of the Spirit increases in scope and intensity. This increase is described as a “pouring out” of the Spirit in many OT passages (Isa 32:15; 44:3; Ezek 36:25–27; 37:14; 39:28–29; Zech 12:9–10) and exemplified by Joel 2:28–31:

It will come about after this that I will pour out my Spirit on all mankind and your sons and daughters will prophesy, your old men will dream dreams, your young men will see visions. Even on the male and female servants I will pour out my Spirit in those days. I will display wonders in the sky and on the earth, blood, fire and columns of smoke. The sun will be turned into darkness and the moon into blood before the great and awesome day of Yahweh comes.

Joel 2:28–31

By twice using the verb שפך (pour out) and the threefold repetition of spiritual gifts in the following lines, Joel expresses a fullness of amount as well as fullness in scope.[5] The Spirit will not only be upon leaders and prophets, but upon all of God’s people. The day of the Lord, with its theophanic imagery, brings a renewal of the covenant presence (Joel 2:27, “Thus you will know that I am in the midst of Israel, and that I am Yahweh your God”) and an expansion of Yahweh’s Spirit among his people. The promise of Yahweh’s restored covenant presence “in the midst of Israel” is closely connected to the Spirit in many prophetic texts (Isa 4:4–6; 59:19–21; Ezek 36:24–28; Hag 2:5–9). These Hebrew texts create an eschatological expectation for an outpouring of Yahweh’s Spirit in conjunction with a renewal of Yahweh’s covenant presence. The pouring out of the Spirit will broaden both the scope and intensity of Yahweh’s blessings.

Many scholars note an eschatological trajectory to the canon that depicts Yahweh’s presence/glory expanding to the ends of the earth. The Spirit would usher in the promised presence of God among his people as “all the earth will be filled with the glory of the Lord” (Num 14:21) in the eschatological age (Isa 6:3; Hab 2:14).[6]

These expectations inform the background to many of the pneumatological promises in the New Testament. Peter quotes the above passage from Joel in his Acts 2 sermon, and claims that this promise is being fulfilled. In the remaining chapters of Acts, the Spirit is poured out into new people groups and expanding throughout the Roman empire. John’s Gospel shows a similar fulfillment in a slightly different way. John the Baptist introduces the promise that Jesus would baptize in the Spirit (John 1:33), and that promise is fulfilled literarily when Jesus breathes the Holy Spirit on his disciples (John 20:21). This impartation of the Holy Spirit is given in the context of Jesus sending his disciples into the world on a mission of redemption and revelation in continuity with Jesus’ own mission.[7] In addition, the disciples serve a representative function for the later, broader messianic community and the blessings/responsibilities (including the indwelling Spirit) of the first disciples are assumed for later disciples.[8] Jesus gives the Spirit to his disciples when the eschatological “hour” (John 4:21–23; 5:25–28; 13:1; 17:1) arrives, thus expanding God’s glory. The expansion of God’s glory through his disciples and beyond is spoken of in John 17:20–22, which states, “Not for these alone do I ask, but also for those who believe in me through their word; so that they may all be one, even as you, Father, are in me and I in you, that they also may be in us, so that the world may believe that you sent me. The glory that you have given me I have given to them, that they may be one, just as we are one.” The sharing of glory that denotes the unified presence of God radiates to future disciples, who will witnesses to the world.

The Spirit’s work of renewing God’s people and expanding God’s glory presence is a crucial part of End-Times fulfillment. While modern Christians often think of the “End-Times” strictly in terms of Jesus’ final return, the New Testament seems to include the entire church age in the “last days”. In these last days, the Spirit’s role is to prepare God’s people, and the whole world, for the Lord’s full and final intervention.


End Notes

[1] Willem VanGemeren and Andrew Abernethy, “The Spirit and the Future: A Canonical Approach,” in Presence, Power and Promise: The Role of the Spirit of God in the Old Testament (ed. David Firth and Paul Wegner; Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2011), 333.

[2] Robin Routledge, “The Spirit and the Future in the Old Testament: Restoration and Renewal,” in Presence, Power and Promise: The Role of the Spirit of God in the Old Testament (ed. David Firth and Paul Wegner; Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2011), 348–349.

[3] Wilf Hildebrandt, An Old Testament Theology of the Spirit of God (Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1995), 67–150.

[4] Peter R. Ackroyd, Exile and Restoration: A Study of Hebrew Thought of the Sixth Century B.C. (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1968), 177, contends that the prophets Zechariah and Haggai (shortsightedly) considered the post-exilic time as this restoration. The work of the eschatological Spirit was therefore crucial in their depiction of the restoration of the temple in Zech 4:6 and Hag 2:4–5. While I disagree with Ackroyd’s assessment of the prophet’s intentions, the larger point of the Spirit’s work in the promised restoration is still relevant. The Spirit of God transcends the temple and is therefore involved in its restoration.

[5] G. A. Mikre-Selassie points out that Joel often uses repetition to emphasize fullness in “Repetition and Synonyms in the Translation of Joel—With Special Reference to the Amharic Language,” BT 36 (1985): 230–237. See also Douglas Stuart, Hosea–Jonah (WBC 31; Waco: Word, 1987), 260.

[6] G. K. Beale, The Temple and the Church’s Mission (NSBT 17; Downers Grove: Intervarsity, 2004), 25, argues that the temple was designed to foreshadow the eschatological reality of God’s presence spreading throughout the cosmos. See also James Hamilton, God’s Glory in Salvation through Judgment: A Biblical Theology (Wheaton: Crossway, 2010), 343. For a biblical tracking of the “all the earth will be filled with the glory of the Lord” theme, see ibid., 268–269. 

[7] Andreas Köstenberger, A Theology of John’s Gospel and Letters (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009), 539–546.

[8] Ibid., 886–894.

John’s Journey: The Road to Eternal Life

Many Christians have heard of “The Roman Road to Salvation.” In this short post, I am going to also recommend something I call: “John’s Journey to Eternal Life.”

The Roman Road is not a literal road, but a series of verses from the New Testament book of Romans. These verses simply summarize the steps of faith one must take to “be saved.” Being saved can mean a whole lot of things in the Bible (and in various religious circles), but on the basic level it means to be in a right relationship with God. Different versions of the Roman Road exist; some contain several verses and others just a basic few. Here is the most basic form of the Roman Road:

  • All have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, (Romans 3:23)
  • For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. (Romans 6:23)
  • But God shows his love for us in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us. (Romans 5:8)
  • If you confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. For with the heart one believes and is justified, and with the mouth one confesses and is saved. (Romans 10:9-10)

The Roman Road is a simple way to share some fundamental doctrines of the Christian faith while also guiding people in how to become a Christian. The difficulty with the Roman Road is that people who are totally unfamiliar with Jesus usually want to read about His life and work, especially if they just believed and confessed that Jesus died for their sins and was raised from the dead. At that point, we usually suggest reading one of the Gospels that contain narratives about Jesus’ life and teachings. For this reason, I prefer to use a “Roman Road” from one of the Gospels so that the series of verses (the road) then are reinforced and read in context. Such a series of verses can be found in John’s Gospel.

John’s Journey: The Road to Eternal Life

When seekers or new Christians ask for a good book of the Bible “to start with,” I often suggest the Gospel of John. The Gospel of John is a narrative of Jesus’ life, death, and teachings. Most people prefer stories to propositions, and John’s Gospel paints a picture of Jesus’ identity and mission through interactions and dialogue. Because John’s Gospel is a preferred place for unchurched people to begin their exploration of Jesus and the Christian faith, I suggest a selection of verses from the Gospel of John that functions like the Roman Road. I call it “John’s Journey to Eternal Life.” After sharing John’s Journey to Eternal life, one can suggest reading the whole Gospel of John as a next step. Whether the verses simply peak someone’s interest or compel someone to saving faith, they can read more about Jesus for themselves. Without further adieu, here is my version of John’s Journey to Eternal Life:

  • The journey to eternal life begins with God’s initiative and gracious gift: “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life.” (John 3:16)
  • Apart from God, we are perishing as we choose evil over good: “And this is the judgment: the light has come into the world, and people loved the darkness rather than the light because their works were evil.” (John 3:19)
  • What should we do in response to God’s gift and our sin? Believe in that gift: “Then they said to Jesus, ‘What must we do, to be doing the works of God?’ Jesus answered them, ‘This is the work of God, that you believe in him whom he has sent.’ (John 6:28-29)
  • What does it mean to believe? We believe in who Jesus claimed to be, that He died for our sins, and He rose from the dead. Here are two scriptures:
  1. Jesus said, “I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep.” (John 10:11)
  2. Then (the resurrected) Jesus said to Thomas, “Put your finger here, and see my hands; and put out your hand, and place it in my side. Do not disbelieve, but believe.”  Thomas answered him, “My Lord and my God!” Jesus said to him, “Have you believed because you have seen me? Blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed.” (John 20:27-29)

Additional scriptures (like John 1:14 or 8:24) can be added for emphasis, but keeping things concise works best. After all, we hope that this will be just the beginning of someone’s journey to eternal life.

While I prefer to use John’s Gospel to introduce people to Christ, getting people to look into the scriptures themselves is the most important thing. Whether you prefer the “Roman Road” or “John’s Journey: Road to Eternal Life,” the path toward eternity with God is too great a gift not to share!

How Temple Theology helps us Understand the Incarnation.

In study 2 we reviewed the theology of the temple in Jerusalem. In particular we templestudied how Solomon’s prayer at the temple dedication (1 Kings 8) demonstrates a belief that God’s true dwelling was in heaven, despite being able to manifest the Glory presence in the temple. A parallel account of the temple dedication in 1 Kings 8 can be found in 2 Chronicles 5-7.

Study Series Intro: Over the next several months I will be posting a series of group bible studies on the Bible’s sacred places. Each study focuses on what these sacred places reveal about the character of God and how these places point to God’s ultimate self revelation in Jesus Christ.

Let’s review the temple dedication and Solomon’s prayer by reading 2 Chronicles 5:5-6:3; 6:18-21.

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Study Bible notes are helpful: A case study of the Wind-Spirit play-on-words in John 3:8

Study Bibles with reference notes have become very popular in the last few decades. While the common refrain of “my Bible says in the notes . . . ” has derailed many group discussions, Bible study notes do more good than harm. These notes often provide helpful cultural or linguistic information to help modern readers understand the author’s intended meaning. One example of this benefit is found in Jesus’ well-known interaction with Nicodemus in John 3.

John 3:5 Jesus answered, “I tell you the solemn truth, unless a person is born of water and spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God. 3:6 What is born of the flesh is flesh, and what is born of the Spirit is spirit. 3:7 Do not be amazed that I said to you, ‘You must all be born from above.’ 3:8 The wind blows wherever it will, and you hear the sound it makes, but do not know where it comes from and where it is going. So it is with everyone who is born of the Spirit.” (NET Bible)wind wheat

Those who have not studied Greek usually do not realize that in
this passage the English word “spirit,” “Spirit,” and
“wind”are translations of one Greek word: pneuma.
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Structure of John’s Gospel (English version)

I posted an outline of the Gospel of John in Russian a few days ago. You can find the English version below and as a PDF on the page devoted to John’s Gospel.biblia

Gospel of John Outline

 

Prologue: 1: 1-18        The eternal Word enters the world.

 

Part 1: Testimony and Signs (1:19 – 12:50)

1:19-34: John testifies Jesus is the Son of God.

1:35-51: Jesus Gains Followers.

 

From Cana to Cana, signs 1-3. (2:1 – 4:54)

2:1-12: 1st sign, water into wine.

2:13-22: 2nd sign, Clearing & Establishing the Temple.

2:23-3:21: Nicodemus, re-birth to eternal life.

3:22-36: John’s last testimony.

4:1-26: Messiah offers living water to Samaria.

4:27-42: Samaritan Belief & Testimony.

4:43-54: 3rd sign, healing a Nobleman’s Son.

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A Bibliography for the Spirit in the Gospel of John

Those who want to study the Holy Spirit in John’s Gospel are confronted with an enormous body of literature. Below is a bibliography of scholarly works (grouped into monographs, dissertations, and articles) that focus on the Spirit in the Fourth Gospel. To limit the scope, I have not included commentaries or general theologies on John; nor have I included systematic works on pneumatology unless they have a heavy focus on John’s presentation of the Spirit (even though these more general works should be consulted when studying the Spirit in John).  I also have not included anything before 1950. I have, however, included articles that examine specific passages in John that feature the Spirit. Due to the shear volume of material, I am sure some works have been left out. Feel free to post any suggestions in the comment section. dove
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