A table arranging the New Testament books according to the date of composition.

Our modern New Testaments are not arranged chronologically, which sometimes causes misunderstandings. While the Gospels discuss the events of Jesus’ life (the crucifixion took place in 30 or 33 A.D.), the earliest Gospel probably was not written down until the 60s. The Apostle Paul wrote many of his letters before the Gospels. This historical perspective is helpful when assessing arguments over material that some scholars may deem a “later theological development” in the early church. For example the “kenotic hymn” of Philippians 2 exhibits a very high view of Christ, despite Paul most likely writing Philippians before the Gospel writers completed their writings.  Note the exalted status afforded to Christ in Philippians 2:5-8:

Have this attitude in yourselves which was also in Christ Jesus, who, although He existed in the form of God, did not regard equality with God a thing to be grasped, but emptied Himself, taking the form of a bond-servant, and being made in the likeness of men. Being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross. (Phil. 2:5-8 NAU)

Some scholars believe these verse were a pre-existing hymn that Paul incorporated into his letter. If this theory is correct, then the high view of Christ can be traced to an even earlier time. Arguments, therefore, that assume a high view of Christ (i.e. his divinity) always reflects a later church development contain an invalid presupposition.

The table below arranges the NT books by their likely date of composition. Most NT books are difficult to date with precision, which is why discussions about dating can often be lengthy and still not definitive. The dating of the various writings depends on views of authorship, so I have included two columns of dates. The books are listed chronologically, according to their earlier, more conservative dating, but the right hand column provides dates from a more skeptical view. Of course, these dates are further debated within their respective “conservative” and “skeptical” camps, but I have tried to give the most common views from my own subjective survey of the data. For the most part, I have disregarded the “outliers” of either camp. I hope readers find the following table helpful.

Earlier, more conservative dating

 

NT Book

(Listed Chronologically)

Later, more skeptical dating

 

Early 50s 1 Thessalonians Early 50s
Early 50s 2 Thessalonians Early 50s (later if forged)
Early 50s Galatians Mid 50s
55-57 1 Corinthians Mid 50s
55-57 2 Corinthians Mid 50s
Approximately 57 Romans Approximately 57
Approximately 60 James 70s or later
Early 60s Philemon 60s
Early 60s Philippians 60s
Early 60s Colossians Early 60s (70-90 if forged)
Early 60s Ephesians 70-100
Early 60s 1 Timothy 90-110
60s Gospel of Mark Late 60s
Mid 60s Titus 90-110
Mid 60s 2 Timothy 90-110
Mid 60s 1 Peter 80s
Late 60s Hebrews 60-95
Late 60s 2 Peter 80-110
Approximately 70 Gospel of Matthew 80-95
70s-80s Gospel of Luke 85-95
70s-80s Acts 85-95
Approximately 80 Jude Approximately 80?
Approximately 90 Gospel of John Approximately 100
Early 90s 1 John  100-125
Early 90s 2 John 100-125
Early 90s 3 John 100-125
Approximately 95 Revelation 100-125
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